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Hawaii Peer Reviewed Publications

  • Grabowski TB and EC Franklin. 2017. What can volunteer angler tagging data tell us about the status of the Giant Trevally (ulua akuea) Caranx ignobilis fishery in Hawaii: revisiting data collected during Hawaiʻi’s Ulua and Papio Tagging Project 2000-2016. Report provided by the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Program under agreement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cooperator Science Series FWS/CSS-126-2017, National Conservation Training Center.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Pease JE, TB Grabowski, & AA Pease. 2017. Variation and plasticity and their interaction with urbanization in Guadalupe Bass populations on and off the Edwards Plateau. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cooperator Science Series FWS/CSS-125-2017, Washington, D.C.  | Abstract |  Download  | 
  • Acre MR, C Alejandrez, J East, WA Massure, S Miyazono, JE Pease, EL Roesler, HM Williams, & TB Grabowski. 2017. Comparison of the precision of age estimates generated from fin rays, scales, and otoliths of Blue Sucker. Southeastern Naturalist 16:215-224.  | Abstract | 
  • Mueller JS, TB Grabowski, SK Brewer, & TA Worthington. 2017. Effects of temperature, dissolved solids, and suspended solids on the survival and development of larval Arkansas River Shiner. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 8:79-88.  | Abstract | 
  • Grabowski TB. 2016. Assessing the feasibility of using acoustic monitoring for Burbot conservation, management, and production. Report provided by the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Program under agreement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cooperator Science Series FWS/CSS-118-2016, National Conservation Training Center.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Sharma, P., Grabowski, T.B., Patiño, R. 2016. Thyroid endocrine disruption and external body morphology of Zebrafish. General and Comparative Endocrinology 226: 42-49.
  • Cheek BD, TB Grabowski, PT Bean, JR Groeschel, & SJ Magnelia. 2016. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblage at multiple spatial scales in a minimally disturbed stream using low-cost remote sensing. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26:20-34. doi: 10.1002/aqc2569  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Acre M & TB Grabowski. 2015. Deployment of paired push nets from jet-propelled kayaks to sample ichthyoplankton. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 35:925-929.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski TB, BJ McAdam, V Thorsteinsson, & G Marteinsdottir. 2015. Evidence from data storage tags for the presence of lunar and semilunar behavioral cycles in spawning Atlantic cod. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98:1767-1776.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Birdsong TW, M Bean, TB Hardy, TB Grabowski, T Heard, D Holdstock, K Kollaus, S Magnelia, & K Tolman. 2015. Application and utility of a low-cost unmanned aerial system to manage and conserve aquatic resources in four Texas rivers. Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 2:80-85.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Bean PT, & TB Grabowski. 2015. Evaluation and Refinement of Guadalupe Bass Conservation Strategies to Support Adaptive Management. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cooperator Science Series FWS/CSS-114-2015, Washington, D.C.
  • Birdsong, T.W. and 19 co-authors. 2015. Native Black Bass Initiative: Implementing Watershed-Scale Approaches to Conservation of Endemic Black Bass and Other Native Fishes in the Southern United States. Pages 363-378 in Tringali, M.D., J.M. Long, T.W. Birdsong, and M.S. Allen, editors. Black bass diversity: multidisciplinary science for conservation. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 82, Bethesda, Maryland.  | Abstract | 
  • Huber, C. G., T. B. Grabowski, K. L. Pope, and R. Patiño. 2014. Distribution and habitat associations of juvenile common snook in the lower Rio Grande, Texas. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 6:170-180.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski TB. 2014. Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii). Pages 42-48 in MM Davis & SK Brewer (eds.). Gulf Coast Prairie Landscape Conservation Cooperative Regional Hypotheses of Ecological Responses to Flow Alteration. A report by the GCP LCC Flow-Ecology Hypotheses Committee to the Southeast Aquatic Resources Partnership (SARP) for the GCP LCC Instream Flow Project. Wildlife Management Institute Grant Number GCP LCC 2012-003.
  • Grabowski TB. 2014. Suckers (particularly Moxostoma spp.). Pages 56-63 in MM Davis & SK Brewer (eds.). Gulf Coast Prairie Landscape Conservation Cooperative Regional Hypotheses of Ecological Responses to Flow Alteration. A report by the GCP LCC Flow-Ecology Hypotheses Committee to the Southeast Aquatic Resources Partnership (SARP) for the GCP LCC Instream Flow Project. Wildlife Management Institute Grant Number GCP LCC 2012-003.
  • Grabowski T.B., V. Thorsteinsson, & G. Marteinsdóttir. 2104. Spawning behavior in Atlantic cod: analysis by use of data storage tags. Marine Ecology Progress Series 506:279-290. doi:10.3354/meps10787  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Worthington, TA, SK Brewer, N Farless, TB Grabowski, and MS Gregory. 2014. Factors affecting the transport time of semibuoyant fish eggs in large, altered river systems. PLoS ONE 9(5): e96599. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096599
  • Cheek, B.D. & T.B. Grabowski. 2014. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblage at multiple scales in a minimally disturbed stream on the Edwards Plateau, central Texas. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cooperator Science Series FWS/CSS-104-2014, Washington, D.C.  | Abstract |  Download  | 
  • Worthington, TA, SK Brewer, TB Grabowski, and J Mueller. 2014. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: Identifying threats and conservation priorities. Global Change Biology 20:89-102. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12329
  • Mueller JS, Cheek BD, Chen Q, Groeschel J, Brewer SK, & Grabowski TB. 2013. A simple device for measuring the minimum current velocity to maintain semi-buoyant fish eggs in suspension. The Prairie Naturalist 45:84-89.  | Abstract |  Download  | 
  • Taabu-Munyaho, A., R.J. Kayanda, I. Eversons, T.B. Grabowski, and G. Marteinsdóttir. 2013. Distribution and exploitation of Nile perch Lates niloticus in relation to stratification in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 39:466-475.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Brewer, SK, and TB Grabowski. 2013. Evaluating the reproductive success of Arkansas River shiner by assessing early life-history stage dispersal and survival at the landscape level. Final report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (FWS agreement number F11AP00112)
  • Worthington, T.A., S.K. Brewer, T.B. Grabowski, and J. Mueller.2013. Evaluating the sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33:79-88.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski TB, KM Boswell, BJ McAdam, RJD Wells & G Marteinsdóttir. 2012. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters. PLOS One 7(12):e51321-e51331. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051321  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski TB, Young SP, JJ Isely, & PC Ely. 2012. Age, growth, and reproductive biology of catostomid species from the Apalachicola River, Florida. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 3(2):223-237. doi: 10.3996/012012-JFWM-008  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • McAdam BJ, TB Grabowski & G Marteinsdóttir. 2012. Identification of stock components using morphological markers. Journal of Fish Biology 81:1447-1462. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03384.x  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Raffaelli, D.G., Friedlander, A.M. 2012. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: an ecosystem-level approach. In Marine Biodiversity Futures and Ecosystem Functioning: frameworks, methodologies and integration (Paterson, D.M., Aspden, R.J., Solan, M., editors). Oxford Univ. Press. Pp 149-163.
  • Sala E, Ballesteros E, Dendrinos P, Di Franco A, Ferretti F, Foley D, Fraschetti S, Friedlander A, and 19 others. 2012. The structure of Mediterranean rocky reef ecosystems across environmental and human gradients, and conservation implications. PLoS ONE 7(2): e32742. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032742
  • McAdam BJ, TB Grabowski & G Marteinsdóttir. 2012. Testing for differences in spatial distributions from telemetry data. Fisheries Research 127-128: 148–153. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2012.02.024  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Friedlander, A.M., L.M. Wedding, J. E. Caselle, B. M. Costa. 2011. Integration of remote sensing and in situ ecology for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas: examples from tropical and temperate ecosystems. Pages 245-279 In: Remote sensing of protected lands (Y.Q. Wang, ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  • Kelly LW, Barott KL, Dinsdale E, Friedlander AM, Nosrat B, Obura D, Sala E, Sandin SA, Smith JE, Vermeij MJA, Williams GJ, Willner D, Rohwer F. 2011. Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs. International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal.
  • DeMartini EE, TW Anderson, AM Friedlander, JP Beets. 2011. Predator biomass, prey density, and species composition effects on group size in recruit coral reef fishes. Marine Biology. 158: 2437-2447.
  • Ruttenberg BI, Hamilton SL, Walsh SM, Donovan MK, Friedlander A, E DeMartini, E Sala, SA Sandin. 2011 Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21062. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021062
  • Mora C, OAburto-Oropeza, A Ayala Bocos, PM Ayotte, S Banks, AG Bauman, M Beger, S Bessudo, DJ Booth, E Brokovich, A Brooks, P Chabanet, J Cinner, J Cortés, JJ Cruz-Motta, A Cupul Magaña, E DeMartini, GJ Edgar, DA Feary, SCA. Ferse, A Friedlander, and 34 others. 2011. Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes. PLoS Biol 9(4): e1000606. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000606
  • Wedding LM, CA Lepczyk, SJ Pittman, AM Friedlander, S Jorgensen. 2011. Quantifying seascape structure: extending terrestrial spatial pattern metrics to the marine realm. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 427:219-232.
  • Grabowski, TB, V Thorsteinsson, BJ McAdam, & G Marteinsdóttir. 2011. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: sympatric divergence of ecotypes in Icelandic cod? PLoS ONE 6(3):e17528. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017528  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Golbuu Y, A Friedlander. 2010. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science. 92:223-231.
  • Friedlander AM, SA Sandin, EE DeMartini, E Sala. 2010. Habitat-specific characterization of the fish assemblage at a piscivore-dominated, pristine atoll in the central Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 410: 219–231.
  • Barott KL, JE Caselle, EA Dinsdale, AM Friedlander, JE Maragos, D Obura, FL Rohwer, SA Sandin, JE Smith, B Zgliczynski. 2010. Natural History of the Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati. PLoS ONE 5(6):e10950
  • DeMartini EE, TW Anderson, JC Kenyon, JP Beets, AM Friedlander. 2010. Management implications of juvenile reef fish habitat preferences and coral susceptibility to stressors. Marine and Freshwater Research. 61:532-540.
  • Young S.P., T.B. Grabowski, P.C. Ely, and J.J. Isely. 2010. First record of highfin carpsucker Carpiodes velifer in the Apalachicola River, Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 9:165-170.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Friedlander, A.M. 2009. Marine protected areas. In: Encyclopedia of Islands (R. Gillespie and D.A. Clague, eds.). University of California Press. Pages 607-610.
  • Boulon RH, ME Monaco, AM Friedlander, C Caldow, J Christensen, C Rogers, J Beets, W Miller, SD Hile. 2009. An Ecological Correction to Marine Reserve Boundaries in the US Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium: 1074-1077.
  • DeMartini EE, Zgliczynski BJ, Boland RC, Friedlander AM. 2009. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl & Hermes atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Environmental Biology of Fishes 85:319-332
  • Keller, BD, Gleason DF, McLeod E, Woodley CM, Airame S, Causey BD, Friedlander AM, Grober-Dunsmore R, Johnson JE, Miller SL, Steneck R. 2009 Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas. Environmental Management. 44:1069-1088
  • Monaco ME, AM Friedlander, SD Hile, SJ Pittman, RH Boulon. 2009. The coupling of St. John, US Virgin Islands marine protected areas based on reef fish habitat affinities and movements across management boundaries. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium: 1022-1025.
  • Monaco, ME, AM Friedlander, C Caldow, SD Hile, C Menza, RH Boulon. 2009. Long-term monitoring of habitats and reef fish found inside and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef. Carib. J. Sci. 45:338-347.
  • Grabowski, T. B., S. P. Young, L. A. Libungan, A. Steinarsson and G. Marteinsdóttir. 2009. Evidence of phentotypic plasticity and local adaption in metabolic rates between components of the Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua L.) stock. Environmental Biology of Fishes 86:361-370.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski, T. B., T. D. Ferguson, J. T. Peterson, and C. A. Jennings. 2009. Capture probability and behavioral response of robust redhorse, an cryptic riverine fish, to electrofishing. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29:721–729.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Paddack, MJ, J D Reynolds, C Aguilar, R S Appeldoorn, J Beets, E W Burkett, P M Chittaro, K Clarke, R Esteves, A C Fonseca, G E Forrester, A M Friedlander, and 23 others. 2009. Recent region-wide declines in Caribbean reef fish abundance. Current Biology 19:590-595
  • Papastamatiou, Y.P., Caselle, J.E., Lowe, C.G., AM Friedlander. 2009. Scale dependent effects of habitat on movements and foraging strategies of blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus, at Palmyra atoll: a predator dominated ecosystem. Ecology 90:996-1008
  • Jayewardene, D., M.J. Donahue, C. Birkeland. 2009. Effects of frequent fish predation on corals in Hawaii. 28(2) 499-506.
  • Papastamatiou YP, AM Friedlander, JE Caselle, CG Lowe. 2010. Longterm movement patterns and trophic ecology of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) at Palmyra Atoll. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 386:94-102
  • Papastamatiou YP, JE Caselle, AM Friedlander, CG Lowe. 2009. Distribution, size frequency, and sex ratios of blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus, at Palmyra Atoll: a predator-dominated ecosystem. J. Fish Biology 75:647-654.
  • Fagre, D.B., C.W. Charles, C.D. Allen, C. Birkeland, F.S. Chapin III, P.M. Groffman, G.R. Gunternspergen, A.K. Knapp, A.D. McGuire, P.J. Mulholland, D.P.C. Peters, D.D. Roby, and G. Sugihara. 2009. Thresholds of climate change in ecosystems. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston VA, USA. 170 pages.
  • Grabowski, T. B., and C. A. Jennings. 2009. Post-release movements and habitat use of stocked robust redhorse in the Ocmulgee River, Georgia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19:170-177.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski, T. J., and C. A. Jennings. 2009. Radio-tagged "guide fish": a novel approach for uncovering information about rare or cryptic fishes. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16:68-71  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Coastal salwater econsystems. Pages 133-151. D. Mueller-Dombois, K. W. Bridges, C. C. Daehler (eds. ). Biodiversity assessment of tropical ecosystems. PABITRA manual for interactive ecology and management. Bishop Museum Press. 255 p.
  • Grabowski T.B. and J.J. Isely. 2008. Size of spawning population, residence time, and territory shifts of individuals in the spawning aggregation of a riverine catostomid. Southeastern Naturalist 7:475-482.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Grabowski T.B., N.L. Ratterman and J.J. Isely. 2008. Demographics of the spawning aggregations of four catostomid species in the Savannah River, South Carolina and Georgia. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 17:318-327.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Birkeland, C., P. Craig, D. Fenner, L. Smith, W.E. Kleine, and B. Riegl. Geologic setting and ecological functioning of coral reefs in American Samora. Pp. 737-761. In B. Riegl and R. E. Dodge (eds. ) Coral Reefs of the U. S. A.
  • Smith, L., H. Wirshing, A. C. Baker, C. Birkeland. Environmental versus genetic influences on growth rates of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata. Pacific Science 62: 57-69.
  • Grabowski T.B., and J.J. Isely. 2007. Effects of flow fluctuations on riverine fish spawning habitat. Southeastern Naturalist 6:471-478.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Smith, L.W., D. Barshis, and C. Birkeland. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity for skeletal growth, density and calcification of Porites lobata in response to habitat type. Coral Reefs 26: 559-667.
  • Smith, L.W, and C. Birkeland. 2007. .Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals corals at elevated seawater temperatures. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 341: 282-294
  • Grabowski, T.B. and J.J. Isely. 2007. Spatial and temporal segregation of spawning habitat by catostomids in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology 70:782-798.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Isely J.J. and T.B. Grabowski. 2007. Age and growth. Pages 187-228 in ML Brown & CS Guy, eds. Analysis and interpretation of freshwater fisheries data. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Jayewardene, D., and C. Birkeland. 2006. Fish predation on Hawaiian corals. Coral Reef 25: 328
  • Grabowski, T.B. and J.J. Isely. 2006. Seasonal and diel movement and habitat use of robust redhorses in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1145-1155.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Paller, M.H., D.E. Fletcher, M.M. Standora, T.B. Grabowski, T.A. Jones, S.A. Dyer and J.J. Isely. 2006. Emigration of fish from two South Carolina cooling reservoirs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26:976-982.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Schumacher, B. D., and J. D. Parrish. 2005. Spatial interactions between an introduced snapper and native coral reef fishes in Hawaii. Biological Invasions 7:925-933.
  • Schroeder, R. E., and J. D. Parrish. 2005. Resilience of predators to fishing pressure on coral patch reefs. J. Exp. Marine Biology and Ecology 321:93-107.
  • Birkeland, C., and P. K. Dayton. 2005. The importance in fishery management of leaving the big ones. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 356-358
  • Grabowski TB & JJ Isely. 2005. Use of prepositioned grid electrofishers for the collection of robust redhorse broodstock. North American Journal of Aquaculture 67:89-92  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Birkeland, C. 2004. Ratcheting down the coral reefs. BioScience 54: 1021-1027
  • Grabowski, T.B., J.J. Isely, and R.R. Weller. 2004. Age and growth of flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris Rafinesque, in the Altamaha River, Georgia. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 19:411-417  | Abstract | 
  • Isely, J.J. and T.B. Grabowski. 2004. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout. North American Journal of Aquaculture 66:234-236.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • Isely, J.J., D.G. Trested and T.B. Grabowski. 2004. Tag retention and survivorship of hatchery rainbow trout marked with large format VIalpha tags. North American Journal of Aquaculture 66:73-74.  | Abstract |  Publisher Website | 
  • DeFelice, R. C., and J. D. Parrish. 2003. Importance of benthic prey fishes in coral reef-associated sediments. Pacific Sciences 57(4): 359-384.
  • Smith, G. C., and J. D. Parrish. 2002. Estuaries as nurseries for the jacks Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus (Carangidae) in Hawaii. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55(3):347-359.
  • Birkeland, C., A. Edward, Y. Golbuu, J. Guiterrez, N. Idechong, J. Maragos, G. paulay, R. Richmond, A. Tafileichig, and N. V. Valde. 2002. Freely Associated States. Pages 205-223 In D. D. Turgeon and R. G. Asch (eds. ), The state of coral reef ecosystems of the united States and Pacific Freely Associated States. 265 p.
  • Friedlander, A. M., J. D. Parrish and R. C. DeFelice. 2002. Ecology of the introduced snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskal) in the reef fish assemblage of a Hawaiian bay. Journal of Fish Biology 60(1):28-48.
  • Birkeland, C. 2001. Can ecosystem management of coral reefs be achieved? pp. 21-25 In: Best, B. A., and A. H. Bornbusch (Eds. ) Global trade and consumer choices: coral reefs in crisis. AAAS Publications, Washinton, D. C. 39 pp.
  • Birkeland, C. 2001. Implications for coral reef management and policy: relevant findings from the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali. Pages 55-56 In B. A. Best, R. S. Pomeroy, and C. M. Balboa (eds. ). U. S. Agency for International Development, the World resources Institute, Conservation international, and the International Society for Reef Studies. 113 p.
  • Craig, P., C. Birkeland and S. A. Belliveau. 2001. High temperatures tolerated by a diverse assemblage of shallow water corals. Coral Reefs 20:185-189.
  • DeFelice, R. C., and J. D. Parrish. 2001. Physical processes dominate in shaping invertebrate assemblages in reef-associated sediments of an exposed Hawaiian coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215(1):121-131.
  • Birkeland, C. 2000. The future of coral reefs. Galaxea (Japanese Coral Reef Society) 2:13-16.

Current Staff

Federal Staff: 1

Masters Students: 1

Phd Students: 0

Post Docs: 0

University Staff: 1

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 7

Scientific Publications: 24

Presentations: 54


Hawaii Cooperative Fishery Research Unit Cooperators

  1. Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources
  2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  3. U.S. Geological Survey
  4. University of Hawaii