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Linking Exposure to Sub-lethal Stressors to Individual Vital Rates and Population Abundance


September 2016 - September 2021


1. Sample across a gradient of wetlands with differing levels of brine contamination in the Prairie Pothole region of the Williston Basin (Montana and North Dakota). The contamination index (CI), which measures the ratio of chloride to specific conductance in water (Reiten and Tischmak 1993), is a well-established measure of brine intrusion in the region. (Note: This component is already being done by B. Hossack and others.)

2. Estimate abundance and community richness of amphibian larvae in reference wetlands and wetlands impacted by energy development in the Williston Basin of North Dakota and Montana. This will be done using ≥2 capture sessions with unbaited minnow traps. For tiger salamanders, we will batch-mark larvae based on capture session and estimate abundance with capture-mark-recapture methods. For frog larvae that are less amenable to marking, we will use N-mixture models to estimate abundance. Community richness will be estimated using the pooled dataset.


Current Staff

Federal Staff: 102

Masters Students: 241

Phd Students: 163

Post Docs: 58

University Staff: 240

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 703

Scientific Publications: 1901

Presentations: 4321



  • Mike MitchellCo-Principal Investigator
  • Creagh BruenerCo-Principal Investigator

Funding Agencies

  • USDI - Geological Survey


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