Cooperative Research Units
Education, Research And Technical Assistance For Managing Our Natural Resources
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Assessing attitudes and impacts to society associated with the use of nontoxic ammunition for hunting on National Wildlife Refuges


September 2015 - August 2019


Despite extensive scientific evidence of the detrimental effect of spent lead ammunition on wildlife and potential for human exposure, reducing the use of lead-based ammunition for hunting activities can be a controversial and contentious issue. Through the implementation of mail-back surveys and group interviews, this project aims to understand hunters’ perceptions towards a voluntary transition to non-lead ammunition use for hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on targeted National Wildlife Refuges in the Northeast U.S. Specifically, this project aims to identify the practical barriers associated with a voluntary transition to non-lead ammunition use and what factors would influence hunters to switch. Assessment of the practical barriers to transitioning to non-lead ammunition will allow the National Wildlife Refuge System to direct targeted outreach and education strategies to achieve behavioral change in hunter ammunition choice.


Current Staff

Federal Staff: 101

Masters Students: 239

Phd Students: 154

Post Docs: 55

University Staff: 241

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 695

Scientific Publications: 1962

Presentations: 4417



Funding Agencies

  • Science Support Partnership (SSP)


Cooperative Research Units Program Headquarters Cooperators

  1. U.S. Geological Survey