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Evaluation of the PA Sex-Age-Kill Model for White-tailed Deer

Andrew Norton with captured white-tailed deer


October 2008 - May 2010


Readily available harvest data is frequently incorporated in models used to estimate abundance of game species. However, appropriateness of parameter estimates and assumptions using these data is rarely evaluated. This project used data across 10 years from >1,500 VHF and GPS collared white-tailed deer to provide parameter estimates and evaluate methods used to estimate white-tailed deer abundance in Pennsylvania. In addition, this project investigated spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in harvest rates.

Research Products and Activities

Peer Reviewed Publications

  • Norton, A. S., D. R. Diefenbach, B. D. Wallingford, C. S. Rosenberry. 2012. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Male White-Tailed Deer Harvest Rates in Pennsylvania: Implications for Estimating Abundance. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:136-143. Abstract |  Download  | 


  • Norton, A. S. 2010. An evaluation of the Pennsylvania Sex-Age-kill model for white-tailed deer. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.Download  | 


  • Norton, A., and D. Diefenbach, C. Rosenberry, B. Wallingford. Evaluation of the Pennsylvania Sex-Age-Kill (SAK) Model for White-tailed Deer. Presented at the Southeast Deer Study Group Meeting in Roanoke, Virginia on February 24, 2009.

Current Staff

Federal Staff: 95

Masters Students: 239

Phd Students: 142

Post Docs: 53

University Staff: 240

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 701

Scientific Publications: 1936

Presentations: 4260



Funding Agencies

  • Pennsylvania Game Commission


Cooperative Research Units Program Headquarters Cooperators

  1. U.S. Geological Survey