Cooperative Research Units
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Protection and Management of Seabird Colonies in South Carolina

Brown Pelican attending nest, Crab Bank, SC


April 2006 - December 2010


Seabirds nest in colonies on approximately nine islands along the coast of South Carolina. These islands are characterized by sandy beaches, absence of mammalian predators, low vegetation, and an upland that provides habitat for nesting shorebirds and colonial seabirds. One of the main challenges faced by managers at these colonies is balancing the needs of breeding and migratory birds with those of island visitors. The goal of the study is to monitor seabirds and collect baseline measures of breeding parameters to better evaluate the health and condition of seabird populations at protected nesting islands.

The first objective of this study was to map habitat use by seabirds during the breeding season. To meet this objective we conducted intertidal surveys during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons to identify areas of high bird use. We conducted 12 surveys at Crab Bank, 18 surveys at Bird Key Stono, and 17 surveys at Deveaux Bank. We also measured habitat characteristics of the intertidal zones of these three islands. Over 30 species of waterbirds were recorded during these surveys, and data suggest that use varies spatially and temporally during the breeding season. Our next objective was to measure reproductive and behavioral parameters of breeding seabirds. In 2007 and 2008 we measured Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) nest success at three nesting islands. Across all colonies and years, mean hatching success was 0.45 ± 0.26 chicks hatched per nest and mean productivity was 0.27 ± 0.21 chicks fledged per pair. Temperature loggers were placed in 108 nests to determine the effect of temperature patterns during incubation on nest success; these data are being analyzed. Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) reproductive parameters were monitored during all years of the study. Across all colonies and years, mean hatching success was 2.0 ± 0.26 chicks hatched per nest and mean productivity was 1.48 ± 0.26 chicks fledged per pair. We recorded provisioning and attendance behavior of pelicans at the Deveaux Bank colony in 2008. These data are being analyzed and will be comparable to those published by Sachs and Jodice (2009) from Crab Bank. Our final objective was to determine condition and health of seabird populations. To meet this objective, we monitored health parameters of 43 nestling Brown Pelicans to establish reference values and investigate the role of ticks nestling health. The field work portion of this study was completed in October 2008. A final report was submitted in June 2010 and the dissertation is currently being prepared for defense.

Research Products and Activities

Peer Reviewed Publications

  • Ferguson, L.M., F.J. Sanders, P.D. Gerard, and P.G.R. Jodice. Complex habitat interactions affect intertidal use by coastal birds: implications on management. Target: Biological Conservation.
  • Sachs, E. B., and P. G. R Jodice. 2009. Behavior of parent and nestling brown pelicans during early chick rearing. Waterbirds 32:276-281
  • Ferguson, L.M.*, T.M. Norton, A. Dipl, C. Cray, M. Olivia, P.G.R. Jodice. 2014. Health assessments of brown pelican nestlings from colonies in South Carolina and Georgia. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45:835-845. Abstract | 


  • Elena Sachs, Dept. Forestry and Natural Resources, M.S. student, May 2006 – December 2007: Provisioning Behavior in Brown Pelicans Website  | 
  • Eggert, L.M.F. 2012. Conservation Needs of Nearshore Seabirds in the Southeastern US Addressed Through Habitat Use Surveys and Assessments of Health and Mercury Concentrations. Clemson University


  • Eggert, L.M.F.*, P.G.R. Jodice, T. Norton. 2008. Health assessments of Brown Pelican nestlings. Pacific Seabird Group Annual Meeting, Blaine, Washington [Poster]
  • Eggert, L.M.F.*, P.G.R. Jodice, P. Redman, J.R. Speakman. 2009. Daily energy expenditure in Black Skimmer chicks. Pacific Seabird Group Annual Meeting, Hakodate, Japan [Poster]
  • Eggert, L.M.F..*, P.G.R. Jodice. 2009. Intertidal habitat use by birds on a coastal island. Waterbird Society Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, New Jersey
  • See All ...

Current Staff

Federal Staff: 95

Masters Students: 240

Phd Students: 143

Post Docs: 52

University Staff: 245

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 702

Scientific Publications: 1948

Presentations: 4251



  • Patrick JodicePrincipal Investigator
  • Lisa FergusonStudent
  • Elena SachsStudent

Funding Agencies

  • National Fish & Wildlife Foundation


Cooperative Research Units Program Headquarters Cooperators

  1. U.S. Geological Survey