Cooperative Research Units
Education, Research And Technical Assistance For Managing Our Natural Resources
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Proposal for Advanced Waterfowl Survey Development and Analysis Protocol for Monitoring the Effects of Climate Change


September 2011 - September 2012


Given the potential for dramatic changes to wildlife distribution and abundance under various climate change scenarios there is a great need to quickly collect and process reliable information on wildlife populations. Mallards are popular game birds in North America and their numbers are often used as a surrogate to gauge the health of other duck species (Johnson et al. 1997). However, winter surveys for mallards have generally used judgment or representative rather than probability samples, making it difficult to draw wider inferences and complicating comparisons of estimates by different researchers (Pearse et al. 2008a, Reinecke et al. 1992). We propose to develop a set of streamlined tools and protocol for selecting statistically appropriate, randomized sampling frames and rapidly processing and analyzing the collected data.


Current Staff

Federal Staff: 95

Masters Students: 238

Phd Students: 144

Post Docs: 54

University Staff: 239

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 673

Scientific Publications: 1905

Presentations: 4235



  • David KrementzCo-Principal Investigator
  • Sarah LehnenCo-Principal Investigator

Funding Agencies

  • Inventory and Monitoring Network Region IV


Cooperative Research Units Program Headquarters Cooperators

  1. U.S. Geological Survey