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Washington Peer Reviewed Publications

  • Gerber, B.D., S.J. Converse, E. Muths, H.J. Crockett, B.A. Mosher, and L.L. Bailey. 2017. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines. Conservation Letters. doi:10.1111/conl.12393.
  • Clement MJ, SJ Converse, and JA Royle. 2017. Accounting for imperfect detection of groups and individuals when estimating abundance. Ecology and Evolution 7:7304–7310. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3284.
  • Cummings J.W., S.J. Converse, C.T. Moore, D.R. Smith, C.T. Nichols, N.L. Allan, and C.M. O'Meilia. 2017. A projection of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide. USGS Open File Report 2017-1071. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20171071
  • Thompson, J.N., and D.A. Beauchamp. 2016. Growth of juvenile steelhead under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints. Journal of Fish Biology 89:1720-1739.
    doi:10.1111/jfb.13078  | Abstract | 
  • Furey, N.B., S.G. Hinch, M.G. Mesa, and D.A. Beauchamp. Piscivorous fish exhibit temperature-influenced binge feeding during an annual prey pulse. Journal of Animal Ecology. 85:1307-1317. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12565  | Abstract | 
  • Sorel, M.H., A.G. Hansen, K.A. Connelly, A.C. Wilson, E.D. Lowery, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2016. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: implications for anadromous fish reintroductions. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 145:521-536.  | Abstract | 
  • Hansen, M.J., B.S. Hansen, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2016. Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) Suppression for Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) Recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America. Hydrobiologia (online)
    DOI 10.1007/s10750-016-2703-0  | Abstract | 
  • Houghton, J., M.M. Holt, D.A. Giles, M.B. Hanson, C.K. Emmons, J.T. Hogan, T.A. Branch, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2015. The relationship between vessel traffic and noise levels received by killer whales (Orcinus orca). PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0140119. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140119 (20 pages).
  • Boyd, C., R. Castillo, G. L. Hunt Jr, A. Punt,
    G. R. VanBlaricom, H. Weimerskirch, and S. Bertrand. 2015. Predictive modelling of habitat use by marine predators with respect to the abundance and depth distribution of pelagic prey. Journal of Animal Ecology 84: 1575-1588. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656-12409.
  • Hovel, R.A., D.A. Beauchamp, M.H. Sorel, and A.G. Hansen. 2015. Development of a bioenergetics model for the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 144:1311-1321. DOI: 10.1080/00028487.2015.1079554  | Abstract | 
  • Schoen, E.R., D.A. Beauchamp, A. Buettner, and N.C. Overman. 2015. Temperature and depth mediate resource competition and apparent competition between Mysis diluviana and kokanee. Ecological Applications 25:1962-1975.
    doi:10.1890/14-1822.1
  • McPeek, Kathleen C., P. Sean McDonald, and Glenn R. VanBlaricom. 2015. Aquaculture disturbance Impacts the diet but not ecological linkages of a ubiquitous predatory fish. Estuaries and Coasts 38: 1520-1534. doi: 10.1007/s12237-014-9909-z.

  • Lowery, E.D., and D.A. Beauchamp. 2015. Trophic relations and seasonal effects of predation on Pacific Salmon by fluvial Bull Trout in a riverine food web. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 144:724-741.
    DOI:10.1080/00028487.2015.1035452
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., J.L. Eccles, J.D. Olden, and P.S. McDonald. 2015. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA. Journal of Shellfish Research 34: 171-187.
  • McDonald, P.S., A.W.E. Galloway, K.C. McPeek, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2015. Effects of geoduck (Panopea generosa) aquaculture on resident and transient macrofauna communities of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Journal of Shellfish Research 34: 189-202.  | Abstract | 
  • McDonald, P.S., T.E. Essington, J.P. Davis, A.W.E. Galloway, B.C. Stevick, G.C. Jensen, G.R. VanBlaricom, and D.A. Armstrong. 2015. Distribution, abundance, and habitat associations of a large bivalve (Panopea generosa) in a eutrophic, fjord estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 34: 137-145.  | Abstract | 
  • Hansen, A.G., and D.A. Beauchamp.2015. Latitudinal and photic effects on diel foraging and predation risk in pelagic ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:532–544.
    doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12295
    doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12295  | Abstract | 
  • Lawrence, D.J., D.A. Beauchamp, and J.D. Olden. 2015. Life-stage specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:879–888.
    doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12332  | Publisher Website | 
  • Furey, N.B., S.G. Hinch, A.G. Lotto, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2015. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated, and inland British Columbia river. Journal of Fish Biology 86:392–401.
    doi:10.1111/jfb.12567  | Abstract | 
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., T.F. Belting, and L.H. Triggs. 2015. Sea otters in captivity: Applications and implications of husbandry development, public display, scientific research and management, and rescue and rehabilitation for sea otter conservation. Pages 197-234 in S.E. Larson, J.L. Bodkin, and G.R. VanBlaricom (editors). Sea otter conservation. Academic Press, Waltham, Massachusetts USA. 447 pages.  | Abstract | 
  • VanBlaricom, G.R. 2015. Synopsis of the history of sea otter conservation in the United States. Pages 395-434 in S.E. Larson, J.L. Bodkin, and G.R. VanBlaricom (editors). Sea otter conservation. Academic Press, Waltham, Massachusetts USA. 447 pages.  | Abstract | 
  • Hansen, A.G., and D.A. Beauchamp. 2014. Effects of prey abundance, distribution, pigmentation, and morphology on selection by a pelagic piscivore. Freshwater Biology 59:2328-2341.
    doi:10.1111/fwb.12436
  • Thompson, J.N., and D.A. Beauchamp. 2014. Size-Selective Mortality of Steelhead during Freshwater and Marine Life Stages Related to Freshwater Growth in the Skagit River, Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143:910-925.
  • Crosson, L.M., N. Wight, G.R. VanBlaricom, I. Kiryu, J.D. Moore, and C.S. Friedman. 2014. Withering syndrome: Distribution, impacts, current diagnostic methods and new findings. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 108: 261-270. doi: 10.3354/dao02713.  | Abstract | 
  • Friedman, C.S., N. Wight, L. Crosson, G.R. VanBlaricom, and K.D. Lafferty. 2014. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:78. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00078.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Hansen, A.G., D.A. Beauchamp, and E.R. Schoen. 2013. Effects of light and turbidity on the reaction distance of anadromous salmonids to prey of different sizes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142:854-867.
  • Ryan, C., B. McHugh, B. Boyle, E. McGovern, M. Bérubé, P. Lopez-Suárez, C.T. Elfes, D.T. Boyd, G.M. Ylitalo, G.R. VanBlaricom, P.J. Clapham, J. Robbins, P.J. Palsbøll, I. O’Conner, and S.D. Berrow. 2013. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in eastern North Atlantic humpback whales. Endangered Species Research 22: 213-223.
  • Yahnke, A. A. Troiano, J.M. Grassley, C.E Grue, and M.P. Hayes. 2012. Effects of imazapyr tank mixes on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32:228-235.
  • Converse, S. J., C. T. Moore, M. J. Folk, and M. C. Runge. 2013. A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision. Journal of Wildlife Management 77:1145-1156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.472  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Converse, S. J., C. T. Moore, and D. P. Armstrong. 2013. Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis. Journal of Wildlife Management 77:1081-1093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.590  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Agness, A.M., K.N. Marshall, J.F. Piatt, J.C. Ha, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2013. Energy expense of vessel disturbance to individual Kittlitz’s murrelets. Marine Ornithology 41: 13-21.
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., L.R. Gerber, and R.L. Brownell, Jr. 2013. Extinctions of marine mammals. Pages 64-93 in volume 5 of S.A. Levin (editor). Encyclopedia of biodiversity (second edition) Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Mesa, M.G., L.K. Weiland, H.E. Christiansen, S.T. Sauter, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2013. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society Society 142:41-49.
  • Hansen, A.G., D.A. Beauchamp, and C.M. Baldwin. 2013. Environmental stress mediates the foraging success of apex predators in a pelagic system. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142:300-316.
  • Juncos, R., D.A. Beauchamp, and P.H. Vigliano. 2013. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultra-oligotrophic lake in Patagonia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142:268-281.
  • Atcheson, M.E., K.M. Myers, D.A. Beauchamp, and N.J. Mantua. 2012. Bioenergetic response by steelhead to variation in diet, thermal habitat, and climate in the North Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141:1081-1096.
  • Kertson, B.N., R.D. Spencer, and C.E. Grue. 2013. Demographic influences on cougar residential use and interactions with people in western Washington. Journal of Mammalogy 94:269-281.
  • Schoen, E.R., D.A. Beauchamp, and N.C. Overman. 2012. Quantifying Latent Impacts of an Introduced Piscivore: Pulsed Predatory Inertia of Lake Trout and Decline of Kokanee. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141:1191-1206.
  • Orr, A.J., S.D. Newsome, J.L. Laake, G.R. VanBlaricom, and R.D. DeLong. 2012. Ontogenetic dietary information of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) assessed using stable isotope analysis. Marine Mammal Science 28: 714-732.
  • Sternberg, M, C. Grue, J. Grassley, L. Conquest, and K. King. 2012. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington. Journal of the American Mosquito Association 28:206-218.
  • McIntyre, J.K, D.H. Baldwin, D.A. Beauchamp, and N.L. Scholz. 2012. Low-level copper exposures increase visibility and vulnerability of juvenile coho salmon to cutthroat trout predators. Ecological Applications. 22:1460-1471.
  • Mongillo, T.M., E.E. Holmes, D.P. Noren, G.R. VanBlaricom, A.E. Punt, S.M. O’Neill, G.M. Ylitalo, M.B. Hanson, and P.S. Ross. 2012. Predicted polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in southern resident killer whales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 453: 263-277.
  • McPeek, K., G.R. VanBlaricom, P.S. McDonald, and D.A. Beauchamp. 2012. Effects of geoduck aquaculture on the growth and stable isotope signatures of Pacific staghorn sculpins. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 322.
  • Blaud, B.M., G.R. VanBlaricom, and M.J. Neuman. 2012. Significant wave height, tidal level, and distance between neighboring individuals of opposite sex affect probability for fertilization in spawning black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814). Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 262-263.
  • Crosson, L.M., S. Roberts, G.R. VanBlaricom, and C.S. Friedman. 2012. A transcriptomic approach in search of disease resistance in endangered black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 272.
  • Friedman, C.S., N. Wight, L.M. Crosson, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2012. Resistance to bacterial disease in abalones: Role of host and bacterial hyperparasite. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 285-286.
  • McDonald, P.S., P.F. Stevick, A.W.E. Galloway, K. McPeek, D.A. Armstrong, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2012. Nekton, nets, and tubes: Macrofauna response to intertidal geoduck aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, Washington USA. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 320.

  • Price, J.L., G.R. VanBlaricom, and P.S. McDonald. 2012. Effects of harvest activity on infaunal communities in geoduck clam aquaculture plots in southern Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 334.
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., A.W.E. Galloway, K.C. McPeek, J.L. Price, J.R. Cordell, M.N. Dethier, D.A. Armstrong, and P.S. McDonald. 2012. Effects of predator exclusion structures as agents of ecological disturbance to infaunal communities in geoduck clam aquaculture plots in southern Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 355.
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., B.M. Blaud, and C.S. Friedman. 2012. Disease-induced fluctuations in endangered black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814) populations over a 32-year time span at San Nicolas Island, California, USA, with implications for reproductive potential. Abstract. Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 355.
  • Frew, J.A. and C.E. Grue. 2012. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using ELISA detection. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14:1024-1034.
  • Moore, C. T., S. J. Converse, M. J. Folk, M. C. Runge, and S. A. Nesbitt. 2012. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates. Journal of Ornithology 152:S339-S353.  | Abstract |  Download  |  Publisher Website | 
  • Bradford, A.L., D.W. Weller, A.E. Punt, Y.V. Ivaschenko, A.M. Burdin, G.R. VanBlaricom, and R.L. Brownell, Jr. 2012. Leaner leviathans: Body condition variation in a critically endangered whale population. Journal of Mammalogy 93: 251-266.
  • Naiman, R.J., J.R. Alldredge, D.A. Beauchamp, P.A. Bisson, J. Congleton, C.J. Henny, N. Huntly, R. Lamberson, C. Levings, E. Merrill, W. Pearcy, B. Rieman, G. Ruggerone, D. Scarnecchia, P.E. Smouse, and C.C. Wood. 2012. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 109(52):21202-21207.
  • Kertson, B.N., R.D. Spencer, and C.E. Grue. 2011. Cougar prey use in a wildland-urban environment in western Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 92: 175-185.
  • Zerbini, A. N., A. Andriolo, M. P. Heide-Jorgensen, S. C. Moreira, J. L. Pizzorno, Y. G. Maia, G. R. VanBlaricom, and D. P. DeMaster. 2011. Migration and summer destinations of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western South Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Special Issue 3: 113-118
  • Kertson B.K., R.D. Spencer, J.M. Marzluff, J. Hepinstall-Cymerman, and C.E. Grue. 2011. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland-urban interface of western Washington. Ecological Applications 21: 2866-2881.
  • Lander, M.E., M.L. Logsdon, T.R. Loughlin, and G.R. VanBlaricom, Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 274: 74-83.
  • Duffy, E.J., and D.A. Beauchamp. 2011. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves marine survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon. Canadian Journal of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences 68:232-240.  | Download  | 
  • Orr, A.J., G. R. VanBlaricom, R. L. DeLong, V. H. Cruz-Escalona, and S. D. Newsome. 2011. Intraspecific comparison of diet of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) assessed using fecal and stable isotope analyses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89: 109-122.
  • Ellis, B.K., J.A. Stanford, D.G. Goodman, C.P. Stafford, D.L. Gustafson, D.A. Beauchamp, D.W. Chess, J.A. Craft, M.A. Deleray, and B.S. Hansen. 2011. Long-term effects of a trophic cascade in a large lake ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 108:1070-1075.  | Download  | 
  • Independent Scientific Advisory Board. 2011. Columbia River Food Webs: Developing a Broader Scientific Foundation for Fish and Wildlife Restoration. Document ISAB 2011-1. Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Portland, Oregon, USA. HTTP://WWW.NWCOUNCIL.ORG/LIBRARY/ISAB/2011-1  | Publisher Website | 
  • Rand, K. M., D. A. Beauchamp, and S. A. Lowe. 2010. Longitudinal growth differences and the influence of diet quality on Atka mackerel of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Using a bioenergetics model to explore underlying mechanisms. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science. 2:362-374.
  • Neuman, M.J., B. Tissot, and G.R. VanBlaricom. 2010. Overall status and threats assessment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814) populations in California, USA. Journal of Shellfish Research 29: 577-586
  • Ciancio, J., D.A. Beauchamp, and M. Pascual. 2010. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian continental shelf. Limnology and Oceanography 55:2181-2192.
  • Elfes, C.T., G.R. VanBlaricom, D. Boyd, J. Calambokidis, P.J. Clapham, R.W. Pearce, J.
    Robbins, J.C. Salinas, J.M. Straley, P.R. Wade, and M.M. Krahn. 2010 Geographic variation of persistant organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29: 824-834.
  • Duffy, E.J., D.A. Beauchamp, R. Sweeting, R. Beamish, and J. Brennan. 2010. Ontogenetic diet shifts of juvenile Chinook salmon in nearshore and offshore habitats of Puget Sound. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 139:803-823.
  • Lander, M.E., T.R. Loughlin, M.G. Logsdon, G.R. VanBlaricom, and B.S. Fadely. 2010. Foraging effort of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) with respect to heterogeneity of sea surface temperature. Endangered Species Research 10: 145-158.
  • VanBlaricom, G.R. Bowhead whale. In The World Book Encyclopedia. 2010 edition.
    World Book, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 2009. Bioenergetic Ontogeny: Linking climate and mass-specific feeding to life-cycle growth and survival of salmon. Pages 53-72 In C. Zimmerman and C. C. Krueger, editors. Pacific Salmon: Ecology and Management of Western Alaska’s Populations. American Fisheries Society Symposium 70. Bethesda, Maryland.
  • Vigliano, P.H., D.A. Beauchamp, D. Milano, P. Macchi, M. Alonso, M. Garcia Asorey, M. Denegri, J. Ciancio, M. Rechencq, G. Lippolt, and J.P. Barriga. 2009. Quantifying predation on galaxiids and other native organisms by introduced rainbow trout in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Northern Patagonia, Argentina: A bioenergetics modeling approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:1405-1419.
  • Lander, M. E., T. R. Loughlin, M. L. Logsdon, G. R. VanBlaricom, B. Fadely, and L. W. Fritz. 2009. Population response to environmental heterogeneity by Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Ecological Applications 19: 1645-1659.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., D. L. Parrish, and R. A. Whaley. 2009. Salmonids/coldwater species in large standing waters, Chapter 7, Pages 97-117 In S. Bonar, D. Willis, and W. Hubert, editors. Standard Sampling Methods for North American Freshwater Fishes. American Fisheries Society.
  • Cross, A.D., D.A. Beauchamp, J.H. Moss, K.W. Myers. 2009. Interannual variability in early marine growth, size-selective mortality, and marine survival for Prince William Sound pink salmon. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management and Ecosystem Science 1:57-70.
  • McCarthy, S. G., J. J. Duda, J. M. Emlen, G. R. Hodgson, and D. A. Beauchamp. 2009. Linking habitat quality with trophic performance of steelhead trout along forest gradients in the South Fork Trinity River watershed, California. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:506-521.
  • Overman, N. C., D. A. Beauchamp, H. B. Berge*, M. M. Mazur*, and J. K. McIntyre*. 2009. Differing forage fish assemblages influence trophic structure in neighboring urban lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:741-755.
  • Banish, N. P., B. J. Adams, R. S. Shively, M. M. Mazur, D. A. Beauchamp, and T. M. Wood. (in press). Distribution and habitat associations of radio-tagged adult lost river and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:153-168.
  • Lander, M. E., T. R. Loughlin, M. L. Logsdon, G. R. VanBlaricom, B. S. Fadely, and L. W. Fritz. 2009. Regional differences in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of oceanographic habitat used by Steller sea lions. Ecological Applications 19: 1645-1659.
  • Armstrong, J. L., K. W. Myers, D. A. Beauchamp, N. D. Davis, R. V. Walker, J. L. Boldt, J. J. Piccolo, L. J. Haldorson, and J. H. Moss. 2008. Interannual and Spatial Feeding Patterns of Hatchery and Wild Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Gulf of Alaska in Years of Low and High Survival. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:1299-1316.
  • Cross, A. D., D. A. Beauchamp, K. W. Myers and J. H. Moss. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:927-939.
  • Kitano, J., D. I. Bolnick, D. A. Beauchamp, M. M. Mazur, S. Mori, T. Nakano, C. L. Peichel. 2008. Reverse evolution of armor plates in threespine stickleback. Current Biology 18:769-774.
  • Agness, A. M., J. F. Piatt, J. C. Ha, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2008. Effects of vessel activity on the nearshore ecology of the Kittlitz's Murrelet in Glacier Bay, Alaska. The Auk 125: 346-353
  • Duffy, E. J., and D. A. Beauchamp. 2008. Seasonal piscivory by coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in Puget Sound: implications for juvenile salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:165-181.
  • Hauser, D. D. W., M. G. Logsdon, E. E. Holmes, G. R. VanBlaricom, and R. W. Osborne. 2007. Summer distribution patterns of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca): evidence of core areas and spatial segregation of social groups. Marine Ecology Progress Series 351: 301-310.
  • Wade, P. R., V. N. Burkanov, M. E. Dahlheim, N. A. Friday, L. W. Fritz, T. R. Loughlin, S. A. Mizroch, M. M. Muto, D. W. Rice, L. G. Barrett-Lennard, N. A. Black, A. M. Burdin, J. Calambokidis, S. Cerchio, J. K. B. Ford, J. K. Jacobsen, C. O. Matkin, D. R. Matkin, A. V. Mehta, R. J. Small, J. M. Straley, S. M. McCluskey, G. R. VanBlaricom, and P. J. Clapham. 2007. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific ? a re-examination of evidence for sequential megafaunal collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis. Marine Mammal Science 23: 766-802.
  • Ciancio, J. E., M. A. Pascual, and D. A. Beauchamp. 2007. Energy density of Patagonian aquatic organisms and empirical predictions based on water content. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:1415-1422.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., A. D. Cross, J. Armstrong, K. W. Myers, J. H. Moss, J. L. Boldt, and L. J. Haldorson. 2007. Bioenergetic Responses by Pacific Salmon to Climate and Ecosystem Variation. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Bulletin 4:257-268.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., D. Wahl, and B. M. Johnson. 2007. Predator-Prey Interactions. Pages 765-832 in C. S. Guy and M. L. Brown, editors. Analysis and interpretation of inland fisheries data. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • Moss, J. H., and D. A. Beauchamp. 2007. Functional response of pink and chum salmon: effects of consumer size and two types of zooplankton. Journal of Fish Biology 70:610-622.
  • Carter, S. K., G. R. VanBlaricom, and B. L. Allen. 2007. Testing the generality of the trophic cascade paradigm for sea otters: a case study with kelp forests in northern Washington, USA. Hydrobiologia 579: 233-249.
  • Mazur, M. M., M. T. Wilson, A. B. Dougherty, A. Buchheister, and D. A. Beauchamp. 2007. Temperature and prey quality effects on growth of juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma: a spatially explicit bioenergetics approach. Journal of Fish Biology 70:816-836.
  • McIntyre*, J. K., D. A. Beauchamp. 2007. Bioaccumulation of mercury and organochlorines and correlations with stable isotopes in the Lake Washington food web. Science of the Total Environment 372:571-584.
  • Hauser, D. D. W., G. R. VanBlaricom, E. E. Holmes, and R. W. Osborne. 2006. Capitalizing on platforms of opportunity: Can whalewatch data be used reliably for cetacean distribution studies? Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8: 273-281
  • Koehler, M. E., K. L. Fresh, D. A. Beauchamp, J. R. Cordell, C. A. Simenstad. 2006. Diet and bioenergetics of lake-rearing juvenile Chinook salmon in Lake Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1580-1591.
  • McDonald, P. S., K. K. Holsman, D. A. Beauchamp, B. R. Dumbauld, and D. A. Armstrong. 2006. Bioenergetics modeling to investigate habitat use by the non-indigenous crab, Carcinus maenas, in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 29(6b):1132-1149.
  • McIntyre, J. K., D. A. Beauchamp, M. M. Mazur, and N. C. Overman. 2006. Ontogenetic trophic interactions and bentho-pelagic coupling in Lake Washington: evidence from stable isotopes and diet analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1312-1328.
  • Sergeant, C. J., and D. A. Beauchamp. 2006. Effects of physical habitat and ontogeny on lentic habitat preferences of juvenile Chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:1191?1204.
  • Kertson, B. N., C. E. Grue and D. J. Pierce. 2006. Status of citizen science in state natural resource management agencies: Opportunities and challenges. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference 70:88-109.
  • Mazur, M. M., and D. A. Beauchamp. 2006. Linking piscivory to spatial-temporal distributions of pelagic prey fish with a visual foraging model. Journal of Fish Biology 69:151-175.
  • Hoberecht, L. K., D. J. Vos, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2006. A remote biopsy system used to sample Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber. Marine Mammal Science 22: 683-689.
  • Bradford, A. L., P. R. Wade, D. W. Weller, A. M. Burdin, Y. V. Ivaschenko, G. A. Tsidulko, G. R. VanBlaricom, and R. L. Brownell Jr. 2006. Survival estimates of western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) incorporating individual heterogeneity and temporary emigration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 315: 293-307.
  • Zerbini, A. N., A. Andriolo, M. P. Heide-J?rgensen, J. L. Pizzorno, Y. G. Maia, G. R. VanBlaricom, D. P. DeMaster, P. C. Sim?es-Lopes, S. Moreira, and C. Bethlem. 2006. Satellite-monitored movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 313: 295-304
  • Zerbini, A. N., A. Andriolo, M. P. Heide-J�rgensen, J. L. Pizzorno, Y. G. Maia, G. R. VanBlaricom, D. P. DeMaster, P. C. Sim�es-Lopes, S. Moreira, and C. Bethlem. 2006. Satellite-monitored movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 313: 295-304
  • Chambers, M. D., G. R. VanBlaricom, L. Hauser, F. Utter, and C. S. Friedman. 2006. Genetic structure of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) populations in the California islands and central California coast: Impacts of larval dispersal and decimation from Withering Syndrome. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 331: 173-185.
  • Buchheister, A., M. T. Wilson, R. J. Foy, and D. A. Beauchamp. 2006. Seasonal and geographic variation in condition and whole body energy content of juvenile walleye pollock in the Western Gulf of Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:897-907.
  • Duffy, E. J., D. A. Beauchamp, R. M. Buckley. 2005. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 64:94-107
  • Chambers, M., H. Hurn, C. S. Friedman, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2005. Drift card simulation of larval dispersal from San Nicolas Island, California, during black abalone spawning season. Pages 421-434 in D. K. Garcelon and C. A. Schwemm (editors). Proceedings of the Sixth California Islands Symposium, Ventura, California, 1-3 December 2005. Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, California, USA.
  • Armstrong, J. L., J. L. Boldt, A. D. Cross, J. H. Moss, N. D. Davis, Katherine W. Myers, R. V. Walker, D. A. Beauchamp, and L. J. Haldorson. 2005. Distribution, Size and Interannual, Seasonal and Diel Food Habits of Northern Gulf of Alaska Juvenile Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Deep Sea Research II 52:347-370.
  • Cross, A. D., D. A. Beauchamp, J. H. Moss, K. W. Myers, J. L. Armstrong, J. L. Boldt, N. D. Davis, L. J. Haldorson, and R V. Walker. 2005. Modeling bioenergetics of juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. Deep Sea Research II 52:247-265.
  • Moss, J. H., D. A. Beauchamp, A. D. Cross, K. Myers, J. M. Murphy, and E. V. Farley Jr. 2005. Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1313-1322.
  • Womble, J. M., M. F. Willson, M. F. Sigler, B. P. Kelly, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2005. Distribution of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in relation to spring-spawning fish species in southeastern Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294: 271-282.
  • Gerber, L. R., K. E. Buenau, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2004. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 2741-2757.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., C. Sergeant, M. M. Mazur, J. M. Scheuerell, D. E. Schindler, M. D. Scheuerell, K. L. Fresh, D. E. Seiler, and T. P. Quinn. 2004. Temporal-spatial dynamics of early feeding demand and food supply for sockeye salmon fry in Lake Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133:1014-1032.
  • Major, W. W., III, C. E. Grue, S. C. Gardner and J. M. Grassley. 2003. Concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in sediment following application of Rodeo(R) to control smooth cordgrass in Willapa Bay, Washington. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 71:912-918.
  • Tamayo, M., C. E. Grue and K. Hamel. 2004. Densities of the milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) on native and exotic watermilfoils. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 19:203-211.
  • Zerbini, A. N., A. Andriolo, J. da Rocha, P. C. Simoes-Lopes, S. Siciliano, J. L. Pizzorno, J. M. Waite, D. P. DeMaster, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2004. Winter distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6: 101-107.
  • Smith, B. C., C. A. Curran, K. W. Brown, J. L. Cabarrus, J. B. Gown, J. K. McIntyre, E. E. Moreland, V. L. Wong, J. M. Grassley and C. E. Grue. 2004. Toxicity of four surfactants to juvenile rainbow trout: Implications for over-water use. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72:647-654.
  • Laidre K. L., M. P. Heide-Jorgensen, M. L. Lodgson, R. C. Hobbs, R. Dietz, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2004. Fractal analysis of narwhal space use patterns. Zoology 107: 3-11.
  • Curran, C. A., J. M. Grassley and C. E. Grue. 2004. Toxicity of R-11(R) surfactant to juvenile rainbow trout: Does size matter? Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72:401-408.
  • Holsman, K. K., D. A. Armstrong, D. A. Beauchamp, and J. R. Ruesink. 2003. The necessity for intertidal foraging by estuarine populations of subadult Dungeness crab, Cancer magister: evidence from a bioenergetics model. Estuaries26:1155-1173.
  • Mazur, M. M., and D. A. Beauchamp. 2003. Comparing visual prey detection among species of piscivorous salmonids: effects of light and a range of low turbidities. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67:397-405.
  • Major, W. W., III, C. E. Grue, J. M. Grassley and L. L. Conquest. 2003. Efficacy of mechanical and chemical techniques to control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in Willapa Bay, Washington. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 41:6-12.
  • Fanshawe, S., G. R. VanBlaricom, and A. A. Shelly. 2003. Restored top carnivores as detriments to the performance of marine protected areas intended for fishery sustainability: A case study with red abalones and sea otters. Conservation Biology 17: 273-283.
  • Ruzycki, J. R., D. A. Beauchamp, D. L. Yule. 2003. Effects of introduced laketrout on native cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake. Ecological Applications 13:23-37.
  • Ferrero, R. C., R. C. Hobbs, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Indications of habitat use patterns among small cetaceans in the Central North Pacific Ocean based on fisheries observer data. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4: 311-321.
  • Laidre, K. L., R. J. Jameson, S. J. Jeffries, R. C. Hobbs, C. E. Bowlby, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington State. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 1172-1181.
  • Stabbins, H. C., C. E. Grue, D. A. Manuwal and S. L. Paulis. 2002. Time allocation by Aleutian Canada geese during the non-breeding season in California. California Fish and Game 88:186-195.
  • Bodkin, J. L., B. E. Ballachey, T. A. Dean, A. K. Fukuyama, S. C. Jewett, L. L. McDonald, D. H. Monson, C. E. O'Clair, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress Series 24: 237-253.
  • Carter, S. K., and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Effects of experimental harvest on red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, in northern Washington. Fishery Bulletin 100: 662-673.
  • Dean, T. A., J. L. Bodkin, B. E. Ballachey, A. K. Fukuyama, S. C. Jewett, D. H. Monson, C. E. O'Clair, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Food limitation and the recovery of sea otters following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress Series 241: 255-270.
  • Burger, J., K. Kannan, J. P. Giesy, C. Grue and M. Gochfeld. 2002. Effectsof pollutants on avian behaviour. Chapter 9 (pages 335-375) in G. DellOmo(ed. ) Behavioural Ecotoxicology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
  • Grue, C. E., S. C. Gardner and P. L. Gibert. 2002. On the significance ofpollutant-induced alterations in the behavior of fish and wildlife. Chapter 1 (pages 1-90) in G. DellOmo (ed. ) Behavioural Ecotoxicology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
  • Shima, M., A. B. Hollowed, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2002. Changes over time in the spatial distribution of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Gulf of Alaska, 1984-1996. Fishery Bulletin 100:307-323.
  • Baldwin, C. M., D. A. Beauchamp, and C. P. Gubala. 2002. Temporal movement and distribution of cutthroat trout from ultrasonic telemetry. Transactionsof the American Fisheries Society 131:143-158.
  • Gardner, S. C., C. E. Grue and W. W. Major III. 2001. Aquaticinvertebrates associated with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), cattail (Typha latifolia), and bulrush (Scirpus acutus) in centralWashington, USA. Wetlands 21:593-601
  • Gerber, L. R., and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2001. Implications of three viability models for the conservation status of the western population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)Biological Conservation 102: 261-269.
  • VanBlaricom, G. R., J. A. Ames, M. D. Harris, and R. A. Hardy. 2001. Sea otter. Pages 536-540 in W. S. Leet, C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeil, and E. J. Larson (editors). California's marine living resources: A status report. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California.
  • Foster, M. S., and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2001. Spatial variation in kelp forest communities along the Big Sur Coast of central California, USA. Cryptogamie Algologie 22: 173-186.
  • Overman, N. C., and D. L. Parrish. 2001. Stable isotope composition of walleye: 15N accumulation with age and area-specific differences in 13C. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 1253-1260.
  • Tamayo, M., C. E. Grue and K. Hamel. 2000. Do water quality andwatermilfoil frequency of occurrence influence the distribution of theaquatic weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei in Washington State? Journal ofAquatic Plant Management 38:112-116
  • Huber, H. R., S. J. Jeffries, R. F. Brown, R. L. DeLong, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2001. Correcting aerial survey counts of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) in Washington and Oregon. Marine Mammal Science 17: 276-293
  • Beauchamp, D. A., and J. J. Van Tassell. 2001. Modeling trophic interactions of bull trout in Lake Billy Chinook, Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:204-216.
  • VanBlaricom, G. R. 2001. Book Review: "Biology of Marine Mammals", edited by J. E. Reynolds III and S. E. Rommel. Marine Mammal Science 17: 202-205
  • VanBlaricom, G. R., L. R. Gerber, and R. L. Brownell, Jr. 2001. Extinctions of marine mammals. Pages 37-69 in S. A. Levin (editor). Encyclopedia of biodiversity, volume 4. Academic Press, San Diego, California
  • Cassidy, K. M., and C. E. Grue. 2000. The role of private and public landsin conservation of at-risk vertebrates in Washington State. WildlifeSociety Bulletin 28:1060-1076
  • Shima, M., A. B. Hollowed, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2000. Response of pinniped populations to directed harvest, climate variability, and commercial fishery activity: A comparative analysis. Reviews in Fisheries Science 8: 89-124.
  • Baldwin, C. M., D. A. Beauchamp, and J. J. Van Tassell. 2000. Bioenergetic assessment of salmonid predator-prey supply and demand in Strawberry Reservoir. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:429-450
  • Beauchamp, D. A., C. M. Baldwin, J. L. Vogel, and C. P. Gubala. 2000. Estimating diel, depth-specific foraging with a visual encounter rate model for pelagic piscivores. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56 (supplement 1):128-139.
  • Melin, S. R., R. L. DeLong, J. A. Thomason, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 2000. Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non breeding season at San Miguel Island. Marine Mammal Science 16: 169-185.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 1999. Modeling food web interactions: A conceptual framework and applications for managing native-nonnative salmonids. Proceedings from the Symposium on: Management implications of Co-occurring native and introduced fishes. National Marine Fisheries Service and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Portland, OR
  • Knight, C. A., R. W. Orme, and D. A. Beauchamp. 1999. Growth, survival, and migration patterns of juvenile adfluvial Bonneville cutthroat trout in tributaries of Strawberry Reservoir, Utah. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 128:553-563.
  • Vogel, J. L., and D. A. Beauchamp. 1999. Effects of light, prey size, and turbidity on reaction distances of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to salmonid prey. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56:1293-1297.
  • Grue, C., D. Pflugh, W. Turner, P. Iolavera, and F. Westerlund. 1999. Incorporating protection of biodiversity into county land use planning: A Gap Analysis pilot project in Pierce County, Washington. Gap Analysis Bulletin 8:43-47.
  • Gerber, L. R., W. Wooster, D. P. DeMaster, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 1999. Marine mammals: New objectives in fishery management. Reviews in Fisheries Science 7: 23-38.
  • Cartwright, M. A., D. A. Beauchamp, and M. D. Bryant. 1998. Quantifying predation by cutthroat trout on sockeye salmon fry using a bioenergetics approach. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 55:1285-1295.
  • Chigbu, P., T. H. Sibley, and D. A. Beauchamp. 1998. Abundance and distribution of (Neomysis mercedis) and a major predator, longfin smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys) in Lake Washington. Hydrobiologia 386:167-182.
  • Pitt, W., D. A. Beauchamp, and M. A. Conover. 1998. Development and application of a bioenergetics model for estimating losses from predation by great blue herons at fish hatcheries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 18:52-65.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., C. Luecke, W. A. Wurtsbaugh, H. G. Gross, P. E. Budy, S. Spaulding, R. Dillenger, and C. P. Gubala. 1997. Hydroacoustic assessment of abundance and diel distribution of sockeye salmon and kokanee in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes, Idaho. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17:253-267.
  • VanBlaricom, G. R. 1996. Saving the sea otter population in California: Contemporary problems and future pitfalls. Endangered Species Update 13 (12): 85-91.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 1995. Riverine predation on sockeye salmon fry migrating to Lake Washington. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15:358-365.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., M. G. LaRiviere, and G. L. Thomas. 1995. Evaluation of competition and predation as limits to the production of juvenile sockeye salmon in Lake Ozette. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 15:121-135.
  • VanBlaricom, G. R. 1995. Book review: "Killer Whales", by J. K. B. Ford, G. M. Ellis, and K. C. Balcomb. Northwest Science 69: 79-80.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 1994. Spatial and temporal dynamics of piscivory on planktivorous fishes: implications for food web stability and the transparency of Lake Washington. Lake and Reservoir Management. 10:21-24.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., E. R. Byron, and W. A. Wurtsbaugh. 1994. Summer habitat use of littoral zone fishes in Lake Tahoe and the effects of shoreline structures. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 14:271-280.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., P. E. Budy, B. C. Allen, and J. M. Godfrey. 1994. The timing, distribution, and abundance of kokanees spawning in a Lake Tahoe tributary. Great Basin Naturalist. 54:130-141.
  • VanBlaricom, G. R. 1993. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island. Pages 323-334 in F. G. Hochberg (editor). Third California Islands Symposium: Recent Advances in research on the California Islands. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California.
  • Estes, J. A., G. B. Rathbun, and G. R. VanBlaricom. 1993. Paradigms for managing carnivores: The case of the sea otter. Pages 307-320 in N. Dunstone and M. L. Gorman (editors). Mammals as predators. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, number 65. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • VanBlaricom, G.R., J.L. Ruediger, C.S. Friedman, D.D. Woodard, and R.P. Hedrick. 1993. Discovery of withering syndrome among black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of Shellfish Research 12: 185-188.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., R. C. Richards, B. C. Allen, W. A. Wurtsbaugh, and C. R. Goldman. 1992. Lake trout spawning in Lake Tahoe: egg incubation in deep water macrophyte beds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 12:442 449.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., S. A. Vecht, and G. L. Thomas. 1992. Seasonal, diel, and size related food habits of cutthroat trout in Lake Washington. Northwest Science. 66:149 159.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 1990. Diel and seasonal food habits of rainbow trout stocked as juveniles in Lake Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 119:475 482.
  • Swartzman, G., and D. Beauchamp. 1990. Simulation of the effect of rainbow trout introduction in Lake Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 119:122 134.
  • Beauchamp, D. A. 1990. Movements, habitat use, and spawning strategies of Arctic grayling in a subalpine lake tributary. Northwest Science. 64:195 207.
  • Beauchamp, D. A., D. J. Stewart, and G. L. Thomas. 1989. Corroboration of a bioenergetics model for sockeye salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 118:597 607.
 

Current Staff

Federal Staff: 1

Masters Students: 1

Phd Students: 0

Post Docs: 0

University Staff: 2

5 Year Summary

Students graduated: 19

Scientific Publications: 38

Presentations: 23

 

Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Cooperators

  1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  2. U.S. Geological Survey
  3. University of Washington
  4. Washington Department of Ecology
  5. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
  6. Washington Department of Natural Resources
  7. Washington State University
  8. Wildlife Management Institute